Malnutrition negatively impacts patients with hematologic malignancies and is considered a poor marker and indicator of prognosis. Our study explored the association between malnutrition and patients hospitalized with acute leukemia, including patients with both acute myeloid and acute lymphocytic leukemia.


The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2019-2020 was analyzed with the use of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify the patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of Acute Leukemia (that included patients with both Acute Myeloid and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia). The cohort was further classified into patients who had concurrent malnutrition and those without malnutrition. The association between several outcomes was studied after adjusting for the confounding variables through multivariate regression analysis.


A total of 24855 patients with the primary discharge diagnosis of acute leukemia were included in the study. Among these, 3425 (13.7%) were found to have concomitant malnutrition. After adjusting for the confounding variables, patients with malnutrition were found to have significantly increased odds of mortality (OR 2.89, 95% CI 2.11- 3.94, P < 0.001). Similarly, the length of stay was increased by 9.1 days, 95% CI (7.01- 11.19), P < 0.001 and the total cost of hospitalization was also increased by 177994 USD, 95% CI (122573- 2334152), P < 0.001 in patients who had concurrent malnutrition.


This retrospective study analyzed a compelling association between malnutrition and adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute leukemia. The findings underscore the critical importance of addressing and mitigating malnutrition as an integral component of comprehensive care for this vulnerable patient population. Beyond serving as a prognostic marker, understanding the impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes can inform tailored interventions and strategies aimed at improving the overall prognosis and quality of life for individuals with acute leukemia. Further research should delve into the underlying mechanisms linking malnutrition and poor outcomes, paving the way for targeted therapeutic interventions and enhanced supportive care strategies in the management of acute leukemia patients.